Many schools take up collective licences that extend the use they can make of copyright content and reduce the need to identify, contact and negotiate copyright permissions with individual rights owners. These licences deal with:
- Copying from printed books, journals and periodicals – Copyright Licensing NZ (CLNZ).
- Copying off-air broadcasts and transmissions – Screenrights.
- Copying and public performance of music and sound recordings – APRA/AMCOS and PPNZ.
It is likely that your institution already has one or more licences with a collecting society. For most schools, a CLNZ licence is a necessity to facilitate copying for course packs and class materials. It is important that you familiarise yourself with the terms and conditions of any such licence. If you are not sure whether your institution has a licence or you believe your institution should take up one, consult your librarian or copyright officer.
Generally there is a requirement to ensure that copies made under a collective licence are exact copies. For example, the CLNZ licence requires copied material to be a “reasonably accurate copy of the original, which preserves the structure, layout, authenticity and integrity of the original”. However, interleaving or interspersing comments or additional material for teaching purposes is permitted as long as bibliographical details are provided with the material copied.
All material distributed to students under collective licences must include an appropriate warning notice for students about their responsibilities when using such materials. For example, the CLNZ licence warning notice states:
This material is protected by copyright and has been copied by and solely for the educational purposes of [institution] under licence. You may not sell, alter or further reproduce or distribute any part of this coursepack/material to any other person. Where provided to you in electronic format, you may only print from it for your own private study and research. Failure to comply with the terms of this warning may expose you to legal action for copyright infringement and/or disciplinary action by [institution].