The Harvard referencing style originated at Harvard Medical School at the end of the nineteenth century. While it was originally used in biology, it is now more common in the humanities, history, and social science.
Every source used in your paper should be included in a reference list—also known as a bibliography—at the end of the document. Order the items in your reference list according to the alphabetical order of authors’ last names.
Surname, Initial(s). Date. Title. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher. (Series.)
Surname, Initial(s). Date. Chapter title, in Book Title, edited by Editor first name. Editor Surname. Place of Publication: Publisher: Pages in book.
Surname, Initial(s). Date. Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume(issue number): page numbers.
Articles from a database:
Surname, Initials. Date. Article Title. Journal Title, volume(issue number): page numbers. (Date accessed, from Database).
Surname, initial(s). Date (last updated). Title of Website. [Online]. Publisher. Available: URL. [Date you accessed the site].
Items with multiple authors:
If there are two to six authors, list each author separately like this:
Mozart, W. A., Hoffmeister, F. A., Clementi, M.
If there are more than six authors list the first six authors then add et. al. after the sixth author’s name:
Mozart, W. A., Hoffmeister, F. A., Clementi, M., Pleyel, I. J., Krommer, F., Cherubini, L., et. al.
In Harvard reference style, in-text referencing using parentheses is used, with the reference list appearing at the end of the document. In-text referencing should include the author’s name, date of publication, and page numbering, unless the citation refers to a very broad or general argument or idea.
This view originated in the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian war (Smith, 1972: 173).
This view was first advanced by Smith (1972: 173).
Examples of quotations:
Smith (1972: 173) noted that a “a general staff was now a critical consideration in the constitution of European armies.”
“A general staff was now a crucial consideration in the constitution of European armies” (Smith, 1972: 173).
Examples where a cited item has no author:
This appears not to have been recognised before 1871 (The Horseshoe War 1968: 22).
In The Horseshoe War (1968: 22) it is suggested that this was not recognised before 1871.
Examples of secondary sources:
Moltke (cited in Smith, 1972: 173) observed that the quality of Prussian horseshoes was generally superior to those of the French cavalry.
The horseshoes of the Prussian cavalry were considered by their generals to be superior (Moltke, cited in Smith, 1972: 173).