Produced by the Modern Language Association, MLA style is used mainly in the humanities. Like Harvard, MLA style prefers in-line referencing of author name and page numbering in a specified order.
Appearing at the end of your paper, this should cite all sources used in the text.
Surname, First name Initials. Title of Book. Edition, Publisher, year of publication.
Author. "Title of Chapter." Title of Book, edited by Editor, edition, Publisher, year of publication, pp. page numbers.
Journal articles and articles from a database:
Author. "Title of Article." Title of Publication, vol. volume, no. issue, year of publication, pp. page numbers. Name of Database, doi:Digital Object Identifier.
Author. "Title of Article." Title of Publication, vol. volume, no. issue, year of publication, pp. page numbers. Name of Database, URL.
Author. "Title of Webpage." Title of Website, Publisher or Sponsor of the Site, publication date or last update, URL.
Items with multiple authors:
If there are two authors, reverse the order of the first author’s name and place a comma preceding an ‘and’ before the second author’s name.
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, and Franz Anton Hoffmeister.
If there are three or more authors, include only the first author’s name, followed by ‘et al.’
Mozart, Wolfgang A., et al.
In MLA reference style, in-text referencing using parentheses is used, with the reference list appearing at the end of the document. In-text referencing should include the author’s name and page numbering, unless you cite material from the same author in the same paragraph, only the page numbering is needed provided excluding the author’s name may cause confusion.
This view originated in the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian war (Smith 173). It was noted that a general staff became a crucial consideration in the constitution of European armies (173).
Examples of quotations:
“A general staff was now a crucial consideration in the constitution of European armies” (Smith 173).
Examples where a cited item has no author:
This appears not to have been recognised before 1871 (The Horseshoe War 22).
In The Horseshoe War (22) it is suggested that this was not recognised before 1871.
Examples with two authors:
The use of a shako now came to be viewed as essential by cavalry (Plunkett and Burns 232). Although their size and weight emphasised cavalry’s ceremonial—rather than martial—aspect (243).
Examples with three or more authors:
Either cite all names as they appear on the title page of the source, or only the first author, followed by ‘et al.’
Prior to the Great War cavalry had generally reverted to mounted infantry expected to dismount before engaging enemy infantry (Clive et al 416).